The effects of the spray are instantaneous. Pepper spray causes inflammation of the eye capillaries and all other mucous membranes resulting in immediate blindness, coughing, choking and nausea with extreme discomfort. Symptoms will disappear within 30 to 40 minutes with no after effects. Pepper spray will cause no permanent damage or after effects if used properly. No medical attention should be necessary. Exposure to fresh air and water will reduce effects. Remove contaminated clothing immediately. Wash exposed skin area thoroughly with soap and cold water for 15 minutes, repeat as necessary.